Week 3 discussion 1 response

  

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references come from Broderick and Blewitt (2015). I need this completed by 12/17/17 at 6pm. Please respond to these posts from my classmates. I will post their work and respond according to the instructions

Respond to at least two of your colleagues using one or more of the following approaches:

· Expand on a colleague’s post by providing an authentic example from your own observations and/or work with clients.

· Offer and support additional cultural and environmental influences by referencing authentic examples from your own observations, your work with clients, and/or the current literature.

· Share an insight into why a parent from a certain culture or environment might choose to parent his or her child using a certain style. Support your insight by referencing authentic examples from your work with clients and/or the current literature.

Classmate post:

1. (A. Wit)

· As a parent of three young children, I have always appreciated learning about child development.  My shelves are well stocked with books on various parenting styles.  In this post, I will briefly describe the influence that parenting style and cultural context has on a developing child’s identity.

· The influence of parenting style on a child’s identity and emotional stability

·             Parenting style is arguably an essential factor in the development of a child’s identity.  The two major dimensions of parenting style are warmth/parental responsiveness and control/parental demandingness (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Along these two axes, four styles are identified; 1) authoritative, 2) authoritarian, 3) permissive, and 4) neglecting (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Although there are many factors involved in identity development, positive child outcomes are correlated with the authoritative parenting style (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Traits of children raised by authoritative parents are adaptability, competence, good social skills, high self-esteem, and reduced aggression (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Negative child outcomes for the other three styles (authoritative, permissive, and neglecting) may include increased aggressive behavior, low self-esteem, impulsivity, and reduced self-regulation (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Research supports the link between authoritative parenting and increased self-esteem (Firouzkouhi, Validad, Rakhshani, & Assareh, 2017).  One hypothesis for increased self-esteem is that authoritative parents accept their children’s strengths and weaknesses and set acceptable and reasonable standards for behavior (Firouzkouhi, Validad, Rakhshani, & Assareh, 2017). 

· Culture and environmental influences

·             Despite the influence of parenting style on a child’s development, it must be considered in conjunction with genetics, temperament, and cultural factors.  Culture undoubtedly helps to shape a child’s values, self-regulation, and behavior (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  For example, broadly speaking, European American children typically have a developed sense of autonomy and individualism, while Latino American children have a developed sense of interdependence (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Other cultural differences that forming identity are the way children play (Cote & Bornstein, 2009).  European American parents tend to follow the child’s lead when playing together, perhaps developing autonomy (Cote & Bornstein, 2009).  Latino parents are likely to direct the child’s play to foster obedient behavior (Cote & Bornstein, 2009). 

· Summary

·             Although several factors that contribute to identity development in children, parenting style is quite influential.  Authoritative parents raise children that are likely to be confident, adaptable, and productive (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  One consideration for future research is the influence of two or more parenting styles on a child.  For example, an authoritative mother (step-mother) and a neglecting father (step-father).    A multidimensional approach is the best way to understand childhood development (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

· References

· Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

· Cote, L. R., & Bornstein, M. H. (2009). Child and mother play in three U. S. cultural groups: Comparisons and associations. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(3), 355–363.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

· Firouzkouhi Moghaddam, M., Validad, A., Rakhshani, T., & Assareh, M. (2017). Child self-esteem and different parenting styles of mothers: a cross-sectional study. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 19(1), 37-42. Doi:10.12740/APP/68160

2. (H. Men)

3. I personally think that parenting style influence children during each stage of their lives.  Parents interact with their children and choose make decisions for them when they are infants.  Parents also determine whom their children interact with, play with, and even how their children also manage their emotions throughout childhood.  According to Broderick & Blewitt (2015), it is almost necessary for a child to develop not only physically but emotionally in a healthy manner for them to grow up in order to be a healthy person that can not only handle difficult experiences but also stressful situation in the future.  Parents also play a big role in the formation of their children’s regulation of emotions and behaviors, as well as their children’s self-esteem and identity.  The emotional development of the child may include all the aspects of personality and identity development. The ability to control emotions and emotional responses stems from the level of response and involvement of the children parents in their lives.  For example, the parents normally act as a resource for their children in social referencing. 

4. Cultural and Environmental Influences            

5. The type of parenting style the parents used sometimes may also be determined by the parents’ own culture.  Also, children’s environmental influence is largely dictated by where their parents live, take them, go to church and even send them to school.  Under normal circumstances the environment that the parents put their children determines whom their children also form social relationships with. The environment that we live in now plays a major role on parenting style from difference in social and economic classes and family structures.  
 

6. Reference:

7. Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

3. (B. Smith)

4.  The four parenting styles are authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglecting-uninvolved. Each style is a cross or mix between another with variations between responsiveness and demandingness. This week’s post will discuss how a parenting style impacts a child’s identity and emotional stability.

5. Influence of Parenting Styles

6.          The authoritative parenting style is seen as the most effective as it allows for autonomy, encourages communication, displays affection, and provides clear expectations and standards to the child (Brodercik, 2016, pg. 181). The Authoritarian Style is not as responsive as the Authoritative parent, creating a less positive environment. These parents operate moreso on a “because I said so” level, are less affectionate, and utilize power assertion. Children of these parents have less freedom to expression emotions, are at a high risk of being bullied, and tend to experience low self-esteem (Broderick, 2016, pg. 182). The Permissive Style of Parenting is less demanding of maturity but overall more affectionate. Finally, the Neglecting-Uninvolved Parenting Style involves parents who are less affectionate, less demanding, less responsive, and more focused on their own needs.  These children often display impulsiveness and can exhibit both depression and aggressiveness.

7. Culture and Environment

8.       Broderick (2016) indicates that race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status can influence parenting styles. Research reports there is a direct correlation, within the European-American samples, between physical discipline and aggressive behavior in children. The evidence concludes that the harsher the punishment, the more aggressive the child is likely to be. However, the opposite was found for African-American families. “…they found that based on parent report that corporal punishment is related to less aggressive outcomes” (Broderick, 2016, pg. 189).  The same could be conceptualized for environment or SES. A parent that is struggling to make ends meet could present as less responsive but more demanding. 

9. Conclusion

10.   Parenting styles have a large impact on the outcomes of their children’s identity and emotional stability. However, other influences include culture, environment, and SES. I do not believe there is one, specific way to rear a child. Therefore, it is perfectly fine if a parent crossing parenting styles to borrow a technique or characteristic. I believe that children are a reflection of what they are given. A child that receives love, support, and proper guidance will reflect that. 

11. References 

12. Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

13. Laureate Education (Producer). (2013l). Perspectives: Working with young children [Video file]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu 

Readings

· Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

o Chapter 4, “Emotional Development in the Early Years” (pp. 124-167)

o Chapter 5, “The Emerging Self and Socialization in the Early Years” (pp. 168-201)

Cote, L. R., & Bornstein, M. H. (2009). Child and mother play in three U. S. cultural groups: Comparisons and associations. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(3), 355–363.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

De Young, A. C., Kenardy, J. A., & Cobham, V. E. (2011). Trauma in early childhood: A neglected population. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 14(3), 231–250.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Gould, K. (2011). Parenting theAsperger’s child: Extraordinary demands and pitfalls. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 31(3), 320–333.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Gullone, E., Ollendick, T. H., & King, N. J. (2006). The role of attachment representation in the relationship between depressive symptomatology and social withdrawal in middle childhood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(3), 263–277.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Mercer, S. H., & DeRosier, M. E. (2010). Selection and socialization of internalizing problems in middle childhood. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(9), 1031–1056.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Media

· Laureate Education (Producer). (2013n). Young childhood [Video file]. Retrieved from CDN Files Database. (COUN 6215/COUN 8215/HUMN 8215)
 

This media presentation continues your exploration of the client family assigned to you by your Instructor. This week, you will focus on the young child, aged 4–10, in your Discussion post.
 

Note: Please click on the following link for the transcript: Transcript (PDF).

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